Research Shows How Overexposure to Fluoride Destroys Teeth Enamel - Daily Research List
Fluoride has several benefits on teeth and bones when it is present in low quantities; however, overexposure to fluoride alters the calcium signaling, gene function and regulation, and mitochondrial function in the cells that are responsible for the formation of tooth enamel, resulting in the occurrence of dental fluorosis - a novel condition that arises upon overexposure to fluoride in childhood. The study - led by a team of researchers at NYU College of Dentistry - suggests how a condition called fluorosis develops. The findings of the study got published in the scientific journal Science Signaling.
Fluoride is a naturally occurring substance that is often the main ingredient in toothpaste and helps in preventing cavities by promoting mineralization - meaning that it causes the residual chemicals from food that stays on teeth to break down, ultimately preventing tooth decay. It also makes the tooth enamel more resistant to acid. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services suggested that the ideal level of fluoride should be 0.7 parts per million. Furthermore, water fluoridation is one of the 10 extraordinary achievements of the 20 th century with respect to preventing tooth decay, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported.
While low levels of fluoride help reinforce and protect tooth polish, high levels of fluoride can result in dental fluorosis-staining of teeth, for the most part, with hazy white lines, or mottled enamel and poor mineralization. This condition happens when youngsters between birth and around nine years old are exposed to high levels fluoride when their teeth are shaping, and can actually increase the risk of tooth decay.
To study the molecular bases of dental fluorosis, the team investigated the impacts of exposing tooth enamel to fluoride. Later, they evaluated fluoride's effect on calcium signaling inside the cells, since the role of calcium is mineralizing the tooth enamel.
The scientists found that exposing enamel cells from mice to fluoride brought about calcium dysregulation, with reductions in calcium entering and stored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a compartment inside cells with a lot of functions, including storing calcium. Likewise, it disturbed the mitochondrial function that changed the energy production. At long last, RNA sequencing suggested that exposure of enamel cells to fluoride increased gene expression responsible for encoding ER stress reaction proteins and those encoding mitochondrial proteins, which are associated with energy production.
The team then conducted the same study using early-stage kidney cells from people, yet they didn't see similar results when the kidney cells were exposed to fluoride. This suggests that enamel cells are not similar to the cells forming tissue in other parts of the body.
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